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This project was the final project undertaken whilst completing a double degree in Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design at Monash Univers… Read More
This project was the final project undertaken whilst completing a double degree in Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design at Monash University, Melbourne. It showcases my efforts at conceptualising, developing, refining, building and presenting a solution to a particular problem discovered from a first-hand experience with the current alpine medical practices after being involved in an accident whilst competing at the Australian University Snow-sports Championships in 2011. My experience with the method of being transported back to the medical centre forced me to evaluate the current practices and standards; raising questions on how to improve the safe and secure transport of injured skiers and snowboarders in Australian ski resorts. Read Less
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INTRODUCTION
During the 4 months of the Australian snow season (June - September), the Victorian and NSW Alps are flooded with skiers and snowboarders from all difficulty levels. Whether they are beginners trying the sport for the first time, or experienced athletes competing at FIS events, everyone is under the risk of injury from the high adrenaline activities of sliding and jumping on snow. These injuries range from a simple sprained wrist, broken bones, severe spinal damage, brain trauma, and in some cases death.

Currently in place across all Australian alpine resorts are ski patrol services that help assist in case of emergency. Depending on the extent of the injury (for example; if the injured person needs to be kept still), they can be secured in a stretcher that is manually pulled by two ski patrollers from the front and rear. This is an effective method of evacuating the injured person from steep and rough areas of terrain, taking them to the nearest chairlift where the stretcher is attached to the chair and taken to higher ground. The injured person is then either transported to the medical centre located in the village or to the airlift pick-up point, usually by skidoo, as it is much faster and more efficient.

However, it is this method of transportation that poses the most risk to the injured person. The main concern for the transportation of an injured skier or snowboarder from the accident site to the medical centre or airlift pick-up is shock absorption from bumps and holes in the natural snow terrain. Once they are secure in this cocoon-like sleigh, they are held rigid, immobilizing the body and the injured limb. However, this will only keep them as stable as the ride of the sleigh they are on. There is little if any suspension to help absorb the impact from bumps. It takes a toll on the morale of the person if they feel they are at risk during transit to the medical centre, especially if its blowing a gale in the midst of a blizzard (a common weather condition for Mt Buller).
How can we improve the safe recovery of accident victims in alpine areas? What method of transport can we employ that will reduce the risk of injury, increase morale, and provide a warm and secure environment during transport from the accident scene to the Medical Centre or Airlift pickup point?
THE BRIEF
As it currently stands (in Victoria and NSW), there is no such vehicle that allows the safe and secure transport of an injured person from the accident site to the Medical Centre or Airlift pickup point. There is no such vehicle that is equipped with all the necessities of an ambulance, or such a vehicle that allows the injured person to be examined, monitored and moved out of harms way of the very real elements of a snow blizzard. Most of all, the current method of transporting the injured person is risky, and rests below a level of safety that should be enforced to help reduce the escalation of injury post accident.

On a personal level, I was involved in an accident during the Victorian Inter-varsity Championships at Mount Buller in July 2011, during the boarder-cross event. I sustained what I thought was just a strained groin at the time, but after further investigation it was in fact a sheared pubic synthesis injury. I was exposed to this current system first-hand, feeling scared and worried for the stabilisation of my injury during transit on the skidoo to the Medical Centre.

The target audience for this problem are skiers and snowboarders of any age that require immediate medical response after sustaining an injury. Socioeconomic status would be medium to high income, as the sport requires quite a lot of money to implement (lift tickets, equipment, transport to the mountain).

The ability to bring a robust vehicle (acting as a condensed version of the Village Medical Centre) to the accident site, with appropriately trained staff and adequate medical supplies and instruments would not only offer a much faster response time to the injury, but would eliminate the risk of transporting the injured person over difficult terrain using the current somewhat ‘unstable’ stretcher-sleighs.

Hence, a bespoke snow-terrain ambulance is proposed.
SKETCHING
DESIGN FEATURES
SKÅDI is a snow-based bespoke ambulance designed to offer a safer and more friendly method of transportating injured skiers and snowboarders from the accident site to the local medical centre or airlift pick-up point (in comparison with current services invloving a skidoo and trailer in Australian Alpine Resports).

The name is derived from Norse Mythology, ‘Skaði’, being the ancient goddess of hunting, skiing, winter and mountains, and thus having a direct reflection on the purpose of the vehicle.

The injured person is loaded onto a stretcher that folds out from the vehicle and lays flush with the ground. The stretcher is then guided along rails into the back of the vehicle via a hatch, and slid and locked in place. Inside the medical pod, a trained paramedic has ample room to treat the injury and keep the person in high spirits during the return voyage. The stretcher rests on a gyroscope, which ensures the bed remains level at all times, stopping discomfort and harmful changes in blodd pressure (particularily in the viscinity of the injury).

The vehicle articulates to improve manoeuvrability, enabling it to easily access all areas of the ski resort. It is operated by a single driver, with a driver-focused cockpit to allow maximum control of the vehicle and increased visibility (200-degree peripheral vision is afforded). The four rugged tracks are driven by dual sprockets, and are tuned with ample suspension to help ensure there is no further damage caused to the injury during transport over rough terrain. This suspension system also allows the pod to be lowered for safer loading of the injured person.
Exterior paint and graphics were a key part of the brief at making the vehicle distinguishable and highly visible in blizzardous weather. The coulors needed to reflect common trends in the rescue and satety industries; often consisting of vibrant combinations with reflectable patches for increased visibility and contrasting colours for immediate attention-grabbing effectiveness. The Australian SES (State Emergency Service) were used as the main source for inspiration as the neon orange that their employees wear is immediately recognisable as a sign of help, and also is incredibly detectable in a white-out (the snow reflects the colour, amplifying its visibility).
It uses descriptive and signature lighting to increase its visibility at night so that helicopters can easily pin-point the location of the accident site, thanks to the strips of beacon lighting that run along the roof. The lighting also aids to locate its position during the day in heavy blizzards or ‘white-outs’, where visibility is poor. A central front spot light is directable to give the driver full control. During loading and unloading of the stretcher, strategically positioned lighting under the hatch keeps the area around the back of the vehicle well lit for surveying the accident site, and assisting with safely moving the injured person onto the stretcher.
The preceding and following renderings were developed using Keyshot; some set in HDR snow environments to see what the ambulance would look like in its everyday working environment, and others set in neutral studio lighting to evaluate the surfacing, form language and detailing more clearly. The entire model was built in Autodesk Alias from orthognal views only, as the clay model was not able to be three-dimensionallly scanned, and thus there was no mesh data imported to build surfaces around like in normal practice. Consequentially, the 3D model and the physical model differ slightly in proportional aspects.
 CLAY MODELLING & CONSTRUCTION
Armature construction had to be strategically considered to ensure that there would be enough of a crust once the final surface of clay was refined. Foam cores and a MDF base are used. Scale selected at 1:9 (11.11%) and orthogonal views were used to build the bulk mass of the clay around the foam armature.

Separate armatures were used for the two bodies that connected via a common pivot located on the centre-line in the rear compartment. This enabled modelling to be done on the articulating surfaces joining the two parts. A simple bolt and hole was used to fix the two bases together during modelling of the entire vehicle, which allowed continuous surfacing across both parts of the ambulance, unifying the design in terms of sweeping lines around the corners and from the cab to the rear.
Several manufacturing methods were used in the production of all the components for the 1:9 scale model. The main body was carried over from the clay modelling process. It was sealed using shellack and then heavily primed to ensure a thick protective coat once painted. After a high grade final sanding the model was taken to a professional to be painted with automotive paints and finished with a protective clear coat.

The headlights, taillights, sirens and spot light were all rapid prototyped from two grades of SLA (one opaque, and one transperant). These parts were then fitted into the clay model to ensure they would be easily inserted post painting. The clear components were sprayed with clear coat to give them a wet and crystal clear transperant aesthetic, where as the buckets and globes were painted accordinly, emphasizing the depth of the components.

Laser cutting was used to make the tracks. The sprockets and gear trains were cut form 20MM thick black acrylic, and were coupled together to form the appropriate thickness. A common central hole of 16MM diameter was used to house the axels which were cut from aluminium stock extrusion, and finally rubber tread was wrapped around the framework and glued in place.