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Idea of a new rapid system in Belgrade, Serbia.
Belgrade Bus Rapid Transit
Implementing an alternative rapid system
Belgrade, Serbia  has  a  population over 1  million  people  and  is one of the last European cities  that  doesn't  have  any kind of  rapid  public transport. Metro was planed from the  early '60, but  until today, all the projects were stopped, in  most cases because of the huge costs that Serbia, developing country, can't afford.What if there is an alternative public  transport system that  costs up  to 4 times less  and gives the same results? Here we present our idea of  implementing Bus Rapid System in Belgrade, Serbia.
Belgrade is  the capital  of Serbia  and also the biggest city  in the  country  with almost 1.5 ,million  people.  Which is  14% of total  population in  Serbia. Belgrade concentrates the most important  political and  economic activity in the country. The development of the city was sown down in the ’90. Also the increase of population was slowed down from 1% a year  during the ’80 to 0,2%  during  the ’90. All of this also influenced the number of places to work.

This research has for the  goal to define the a coherent  network of public transport for the city of Belgrade and thus respond to the current and future needs of movement for the population in Belgrade.
On the first map we see the displacement of population in Belgrade. It is expected to be 1.5 million of people in Belgrade by 2021. That is the growth of 11.9%in 20 years.

The rate of employment represent the relation  between the  number of places to  work and people, and in Blegrade it is 385 Places on 1000  People. It is expected that the grow  form  2001 to  2021 will  be  40% making the number  of places to work in 2021. 585000. There geographical distribution we can see on this picture.

The atrativity of the central  zone always stays  much bigger  than other zones. This is the consequence of the  limited  geographical configuration of Belgrade. According to estimates of GUP the mobility  in 2001. Is 2,1 movement per day per person, and is expected to grow in 2021. Up to 2,6. Systra approves  this estimations but introduces also the term of sector division that  is defined  by grater  mobility in the central area, rich in infrastructure and transport needs and less movement in closer and more distant  periphery  parts of the town,  that  have  less infrastructure and transport developed.

With  all  this data and  considering  other  parameters like, width of the  streets, important buildings and places in the city, we  have constructed  4 lines of BRT that are shown on the map below.
To show how efficient this network is we used isochrones maps. We made the comparison for the current condition, metro proposal for Belgrade and our BRT proposal.
An isochrone is an isoline for travel time; it  is a curve of  equal  travel time. We made isochrones maps for every type of transportation, drawn the lines, gave them the frequency and the speed  they  have,  in order to see which one has the best results.

The general idea about the BRT in Belgrade is to make an alternative rapid transit to the metro proposal that will have the same efficiency, but will cost much less. 
The public  transport in  Belgrade is  very  slow (around 16 km/h in average) and has very low  frequency  of 15 min  in  average. Metro  is  supposed to have the speed of 30 km/h and  the average frequency of 9 min. And  the  last one is our  proposal with the  average speed of 27 km/h and the average frequency of 5 min. On this maps we see the isochrones  made by this data, that  show us where can we be in 30 min with every one of the  transport  systems, starting from  the city  center, and  we can  see the obvious differences. The important thing is, that with BRT we reach to the parts that are out of the city lines, that gives the oportunity to develop also this parts, that now have easy access. 
For the project part we choose to design a station on a very busy location, where two lines intersect. In the surroundings there are many cultural point,  like museums and parks, shopping center and hotel.
1. PARK OF FRIENDSHIP, called also  the Peace Park. The First Conference of  Heads of State or Government of Non – Aligned Countries was the reason for the construction of the park in 1961. On this green  complex, during the history, near two hundred of the most eminent  statesmen  of the  world planted  delicate birch, linden, maple or some other  tree. Some  of  them are:  Indira Gandhi,  Richard  Nixon, Olaf  Palme,  Queen Elizabeth II, Gerald Ford, Leonid  Brezhnev llyich, Hua Guo Feng, Margaret Thatcher.. In addition to this greenery a flower sculpture of the sculptor Lidije Misic could be found  in the  center of  Alley. To  mark  the anniversary  of  the  NATO  bombing of Serbia in 2000. the  monument  "eternal fire"  waunveiled. It’s high 78 meters, which symbolizes the number of days of bombing.

2. From time MUSEUM OF ART opened in Belgrade on 20 October 1965th year. The activity of the  museum  begins  1958th when  the  act of  the Council  for  Culture  People's Committee  of  the  City  decided on the establishment of Modern Art, the institution whose task was to monitor the  development  of  Yugoslav  contemporary art.  His  art collection now  consists of  the most  relevant  collection of  Yugoslav  and Serbian art 20th century. Today it has around 7600 and represents the most part a  collection of Yugoslav art space in the period of its existence (1900-1991).

3. OLD FAIRGROUND. The complex was built in the thirties of  the 20th century  across the River Sava  in the area that was an  unpopulated swamp – Belgrade was situated on the right Sava bank. It  was meant  to be  modern  extension of  oriental city, which could represent the western tendencies of the young state (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) and its capital. Modern and monumental complex of exhibition and commercial pavilions was built, and  started  its life with  national and international fairs and exhibitions. World  War  2  changed its  destiny: German occupation forces transformed the complex into the concentration camp, where thousands of people were tortured and killed.

4. THE PALACE OF SERBIA is a government building located  in Novi  Beograd, Serbia.It was the former seat of the Federal  Executive Council (Government) of Yugoslavia  and was previously known as the  Federation Palace and, informally, SIV Federal Executive Council.Construction began in 1947. The original plans were created by a  four-member team of architects, Vladimir Potočnjak, Anton Urlih, Zlatko Nojman and Dragica Perak. Their proposal  included  only  the H  shaped  base. After the  death  of team leader Vladimir  Potočnjak in 1952, construction  was halted, and later resumed in 1956 when architect Mihailo Janković took over the project and significantly  improved upon the original design.

5. The  competition for the  building of the  MUSEUM OF REVOLUTION  was  published in 1961. The  idea  was  to  show  the  development   path  of  struggle  of  people  of Yugoslavia  for all-round  progress, from first socialist phenomenon on our territory that is around 1970, until the end of 20th century. The museum was  imagined not only as a educational and pedagogical institution, but also as a science  institution, and also an archive of valuable materials and documents of social development during this period. When architect  entered the concourse, the ones  that payed more attention to the plastic  of the  bulding got  better  results. None  of  the  projects  was fully forfiling all the nececery elements, so they announsed two winners. 
Situation, showing bigger part of New Belgrade, with location of the project.
Section through the station, and detailed situation with project and its surroundings.
Side sections and Floor plan of the station.
The  stations  are  built with  prefabricated  materials soit can be installed  very quickly. Also the  positive side of this  prefabricationis that we can easily choose what  size of the station  will  be, because it  is  built  from  several  modules or parts. Our module have dimensions 240 x 215.
For outdoor look we have chosen  recycled plastic but  also perforated  façade  which have not only  ecstatic  role  but  also  functional.From  functional  point of view perforation covers one part  of  the  station façade  where sanitary  facilities  are placed. On the  other  hand  in  daylight  thisperforated façade creates interesting shadow inside  of the  station  and  during  the night lighting  in  the  station are creating shadow through perforation andshowing on sidewalk.

Section, with the detail explaining the drainage system on the station.
In order to ensure the break resistance of the large  glass areas and achieve a  good insulation KW 1, 1 with double-glazing, we use a8 and 10 mm  safety glass. The form-stable aluminium frame construction allowsfrequent transport and is capable of being extended.
Through the application  of high  value  materials  for i.e.  insulation and interior fittings a very pleasing atmosphere andacoustic are obtained.

Before and after - location of the project.
Station by night.
Tunnel connecting the two stations.
Because of intersection  of  two bus lines, stations  areconnected with  underground passageway for  faster  and  easier  communication. Wecan get to this lower level of station by elevator, escalator or staircase.This passage has curve sides because  we wanted to follow lines of the  passagewith the  lines of stations. There  is no many functional activates because this  passage is use only for fast communication between the stations.

Entrance to the station, with the counter with information and ticket sale.
To preserve as much green space and trees that are nowon the site we have interleave concrete panels with holes  in the  places where  there are trees, so that we can get the impression of the  fusion  betweenconcrete  and green areas. Also  we have added benches  that  follow  the line  offloor  panels  where  people  can  use  them  for socializing and relaxation and notonly as a communication between two objects.

Park surrounding the station.
Large round openings that  are filled  with a green surface are positioned and angled so that  people can  use them  towards  the area  where  they can relax and enjoy the company of friends and surrounding.
Exhibition panels in the park.
Here we have anticipated some type  of outdoorexhibition area. Given the reason that we can’t  find  this type  of open  spacesin  Belgrade,  our  aim  was  to use  this unregulated green spaces for this purpose,and also in favor  that this area is close to future memorial museum. Of course,this area doesn’t have  to be strictly used for the exhibition but also  forother  content, for example,  open space lectures, music concerts for  amateurgroups, etc. Here we have also  randomly passed  a surface with openings in orderto take advantage  of space that includes the trees. In the case of open air exhibitions, concrete benches that areon this  open space, can serve people for the  smooth and  relaxing  enjoy of  exhibition or the content that take place in this open space.

Belgrade Bus Rapid   System is project  made by students  Branko  Jovovic  and Dusana Petrovic  from the University Politecnico di Milano for their final thesis project on the Master studies. Renders in assosiation with Milos Vlastic.