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    A zine. "History of English Football Clubs Vol. 1" It was a project for my senior thesis.
History of English Football Clubs
Manchester United is one of the best football clubs in the world, with the greatest number of supporters across the world. It was founded in 1878 as Newton Heath L&YR Football Club and it has operated for over 130 years. The team first entered the English First Division, then the heist league in English football. Its name was changed to Manchester United Football Club in 1902, and won the first English League titles in 1908. With great leadership of manager, Sir Matt Busby and youth players as known as Busby Babes, Manchester United could continue its success. But in February 1958, the airplane carrying the players crashed in Munich, Germany, resulted the death of eight of the players. Busby rebuilt the team with Gearge Best, Denis Law and many other great players. Manchester United could make a victory in 1968 European Cup final, which became the first English club to win the title. In 1986, the club assigned Sir Alex Ferguson as manager. He raised Manchester United from bottom to the top, won the FA Cup in 1990 and has continued success of Manchester United until today. Since 1992, Manchester United has won the English Premier League 12 times and never finished lower than third place. It has won a record 19 English League titles, a record 11 FA Cups, four League Cups, three European Champions Cups, and  one FIFA Club World Cup. It consistently assigned with popular players including Eric Cantona, David Beckham, and Cristiano Ronaldo, as well as the legends of Manchester United: Gary Neville, Paul Scholes, and Roy Keane.
Chelsea F.C is an English football club in Fulham, London. The club was founded on March 10th 1905 by Gus Mears at The Rising Sun Pub. Chelsea played in the first and second divisions until England’s center forward, Ted Drake, became manager in 1952. He started to modernize the club by changing the crest and improved the youth system. This modernization led the club to its first League Championship trophy in 1954. After few decades, the redevelopment of Stamford Bridge Stadium threatened Chelsea’s financial stability; players were sold, and the club was going down with many problems like hooligans and legal issues. It ended with Ruud Gullit as a player-manager in 1996. He brought several star players into the blue, such as Gianfranco Zola, and won the FA cup in 1997. By Gianluca Vialli as manager after Gullit, Chelsea could continue the period of glory. In June 2003, Roman Abramovich bought Chelsea for 140 million, and the club started to have dramatic change with big support from Abramovich. Chelsea added several winning cups in its history and became fifth English team to win back-to-back league championships since the Second World War . Chelsea’s legends include Didier Drogba, Peter Bonetti, and Peter Osgood. Currently numerous popular players are playing for Chelsea, like Frank Lampard, John Terry, and Juan Mata.
The history of Liver Bird started in 1892 as “Everton FC and Athletic Grounds Ltd” by John Houlding. Soon, it was renamed as Liverpool F.C. Its start was shining like a star. Liverpool started from Lancashire League in its debut, dramatically went up to First Division and won in 1901 and 1906. When Bill Shankly came in 1959 as a manager, it was even brighter. He started rebuilding the team with his coaches, known as Boot Room members. Under Shankly, Liverpool won numerous cups from UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup, FA Cup, and the League Cup. After Shankly retired, Bob Paisley took the spot and led the club to greater success until he retired in 1983. But in 1985, during the European Cup final against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium, there was a big tragedy. Collapse of a wall in the stadium resulted death of 39 Juventus supporters. Liverpool was banned from European cup for 6 years for the tragedy. Even worse was another tragedy in Hillsborough. During 1989 FA Cup semi-final, hundreds of Liverpool supporters were crushed on perimeter fencing, resulting 94 died, 766 injured. After the tragedies, Liverpool started going down with changing managers many times. Brendan Rodgers is currently appointed as manager, and getting ready for the next flight. Liverpool’s legends include Kenny Dalglish and Ray Clemence. Today, star players such as Luis Suarez and Steve Jerrard are playing for Liverpool.
There were two clubs called Stanley Cricket Club of Byker and Rosewood F.C of Byker. Both merged and renamed Newcastle East End. In August 1882, Newcastle West End was formed but it was later dissolved due to financial issues. A number of players from West End gradually merged to East End, and the club was renamed Newcastle United in St. James’ Park in 1892. In the early 20th century, the club was known for its artistic play, combining teamwork with quick, short passing (much like the current squad of Barcelona). With the play, it won innumerable Cups. After Second World War, under Tommy Walker and Bobby Cowell, Newcastle could hold the FA Cup trophy on three occasions in a five-year period. In 1961, right after the last FA Cup, the club slipped down to the Second Division. But, under Joe Harvey as manager, Newcastle United could continue winning wars. After Harvey, Gordon Lee was appointed to next manager, but he couldn’t do as well as Harvey, and eventually the club fell down to the Second Division. Until the establishment of new English Premier League in 1992, the club yo-yoed Second Division and First Division several times with repeating changing managers. Currently, Alan Pardew is managing the club and gradually making better moves and taking up the level. Newcastle United’s legend includes Hughie Gallacher and Wyn Davies, as well as great players such as Yohan Cabaye and Papiss Cisse.
In late 1886, workers from the Woolwich Arsenal Armament Factory decided to establish a football club, called “Dial Square” in Plumstead. Shortly after, it was renamed as “Royal Arsenal” and became one of the best clubs in English football. Geographic isolation caused financial problems, but after Fulham chairman Henry Norris took over the club, it moved to Holloway, London; it went places. Under Norris, Arsenal won the league five times and the FA Cup in 1930 and 1936 (Arsenal was known as the “Bank of England club” in 1936.) It also won League Championships in 1930-31 and 1932-33. After the war, Arsenal still continued its success under Tom Whittaker as a manager in 1966 winning numerous cups. 1979 FA Cup Final against Manchester United was regarded as the classic of the classics. The return of former player, George Graham taking Whittaker’s spot after his retirement in 1986, brought the third period of glory. Until Graham was dismissed by a scandal with agent Rune Hauge in 1995, Arsenal won numerous League Cups, FA Cup, and Cup Winners’ Cup. Arsene Wenger became a manager in 1996 with new wind. He brought new training system, new tactics, and new players. With the new generation, Arsenal could continue its success. Especially in 2003-04, Arsenal won the League without losing a single match and this achievement gave a nickname “invincibles”. Nowaday in 2013, Wenger is still appointed as manager, and star players such as Lukas Podolski, and Theo Walcott are playing for Arsenal. The legends of Arsenal include Thierry Henry and Dennis Bergkamp.