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    Visual and Critical Studies of Small Towns in Mexico
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CHOLULA WAS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT CENTERS OF CIVILIZATION IN ANCIENT MEXICO. It is said that the Cholulans were one of the seven tribes that came from the north in pre-historic times to populate and civilize the center of Mexico. These seven tribes came from a mythic place named Chicomoztoc and after a great deal of wandering finally arrived at this high plateau. The Toltecs arrived in Cholula in the eighth century, converting it into a sacred city; they built a pyramid that would be the tallest building in all of Mesoamerica. It was said that Quetzalcoatl lived in Cholula, where he took refuge from the conflicts in Tollan, the other great Toltec city. 
Quetzalcoatl supposedly left on his mythic journey to the sea- from which he would rise to the heavens and become the morning star, the star we know as the planet Venus- from Cholula. Mexico tends to mix myth and history and Quetzalcoatl appears to have been both a king and a spiritual master, or simply one of the most important gods of ancient Mexico. For this reason Cholula also means "the place from which he fled," in memory of Quetzacoatl's journey to his celestial home.
Cholula was converted into a religious center covering a large swath from the Gulf of Mexico to what is today southern Mexico. Apart from building the largest pyramid in America, the Toltecs also built 365 minor pyramids, one for each day of the year. It is not difficult to understand how this important city and successor to Teotihuacan would be threatened by the rise of the Aztecs, who were latecomers to the region and were building their own city not far from Cholula. The violence of the Aztecs was known and feared. 
Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes arrived in Cholula in October 1519 and, as he hoped, turned the Cholulans into allies. The Cholulans fought with him, bringing about the destruction of the Aztec city, Tenochtitlan (later to become Mexico City). But the Cholulans were not interested in continuing their alliance with Cortes, which became apparent when Cortes turned to the Cholulans for provisions to continue his military advance. They denied his request, and this convinced Cortes of their lack of goodwill. He organized a party for them in a town plaza. During the party, Cortes led a bloody attack on his allies killing, thousands of them. This massacre marked one of the darkest chapters in an already violence-filled conquest.
Curiously, the conduct of the conquistadores did not end the alliance and the natives who helped conquer Tenochtitlan went on to help conquer the entire country. Cholula is located in the state of Puebla, Mexico.