What are Citations?
Students, professors and scientists often use information from the journals, articles and dissertations of other writers while writing their academic documents. This information is used by them to form personal opinion and analysis about the topic. Direct quotations are also taken from these articles to support certain argument and research outcomes. Citations are used by writers to credit the work of other authors for their intellectual hard work that is now utilized by other authors in their work.
Depending upon the usage and style patterns, citations are of a various kind. They are also used to relocate the particular journal or article, using the references. Here in this article three most important and popular citation forms will be discussed, that is APA, MLA and Chicago.
Pattern and temples: For an essay writer, all the referencing styles have a difference in the layout and formatting of the documents. These styles decide how particular document will look like in formation at the end.
In-text Citations: These citations consist of a brief introduction of the article used as a reference. It is used in the middle of the text of the academic document. These form citations are precise and just point to the actual reference.
Bibliography: These are put at the end of the academic document, under the references heading as a separate entity. It contains all the important features of the journal, article or book that is used as a reference.
Combat against the plagiarism
Plagiarism is the one of the most prominent issues in the academic world; writers don’t get credited for their work due to copycats. That’s why citations are considered essential in all documents.
Uses of various Citation Styles
Citations include the name of the author, date of publishing, the name of the publisher, the title of the journal and Digital object identifier. Various patterns and styles are present to choose the citations according to the academic discipline.
APA Style (American Psychological Association)
It is used in disciplines of Education, Sciences and Psychology.
This originated in 1929 by a group of business managers, anthropologists and psychologists in an aim to ensure perfect and consistent the documented material. It ensures uniformity of written materials, i.e. tone, heading, lengths, punctuation, presentation of numbers and statistics, table and figure construction, and citation of references.
MLA Style (Modern Language Associations)
It is used by disciplines of Humanity.
This style features concise parenthetical citations that is keyed to list of works mentioned at the end. It consists of core elements, containers and rationale.
It is used by disciplines of Business, Fine Arts and History.
This style was first published in the press of University of Chicago in 1906. This form of citation incorporates all the laws of punctuation and grammar that are used in American English.
Example of three styles
The article named “Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants” will be used to demonstrate the difference in the citation styles.
(Root et al.)
Root, Terry L., et al.
“Fingerprints of Global Warming on Wild Animals and Plants.”
Nature, vol. 421, no. 6918, Jan. 2003, pp. 57–60. www.nature.com,
(Root et al.)
Root, Terry L., et al. “Fingerprints of Global Warming on Wild Animals and Plants.” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6918, Jan. 2003, pp. 57–60. www.nature.com, doi:10.1038/nature01333.
(Root et al. 2003a)
———. 2003b. “Fingerprints of Global Warming on Wild Animals and Plants.” Nature 421 (6918): 57–60. doi:10.1038/nature01333.