36 Days of Type 2018 - Endangered Species
I’m going to be covering some endangered and vulnerable species through my artwork for 36 days of type. I will be giving a brief about the animals and what stage of extinction risk they are at. Hopefully this will help build awareness of these beautiful creatures.
Amur Leopard - Critically Endangered
Similar to other leopards, the Amur leopard can run at speeds of up to 37 miles per hour. This incredible animal has been reported to leap more than 19 feet horizontally and up to 10 feet vertically. The Amur leopard is poached largely for its beautiful, spotted fur. Agriculture and villages surround the forests where the leopards live. As a result the forests are relatively accessible, making poaching a problem. 

Bornean Orangutan - Critically Endangered
The Bornean orangutan is the largest truly arboreal animal alive today. Their diet is composed of over 500 types of food, including wild bird eggs, flowers, insects and bark. Orangutans are sometimes shot in retaliation when they move into agricultural areas, such as oil palm plantations, and destroy crops. This occurs particularly in times of hardship when orangutans can’t find the food they need in the forest.

Chile Darwin's Frog - Critically Endangered
This species was discovered by Charles Darwin in the thick, gloomy forests of southern-central Chile. It is one of only two frogs in the world where the young undergo part of their development in the parent’s mouth. Darwin's frog has a very distinct appearance, having evolved to look a bit like a leaf to be able to camouflage on the forest floor when threatened by predators. Today, this species is considered to be critically endangered from extinction mainly due to habitat loss, primarily caused by deforestation.

Dhole - Endangered
Like other medium-sized canines, the wild dog is a highly sociable animal that spends it's life as part of a pack. The dhole is well-known for the vocal calls that it uses to communicate with it's pack. It is said that the repetitive whistles of the dhole are so distinctive that individuals animal can be easily identified by their calls. The dhole is a carnivorous and fairly dominant predator within it's natural environment. The main reason for the severe decline in the dhole population numbers is thought to be through habitat loss and hunting from humans.
Eastern Lowland Gorilla - Critically Endangered
Gorillas, the largest living primates, make their homes in central and east Africa. They display many human-like behaviors and emotions, such as laughter and sadness. They even make their own tools to help them survive in the forest. Years of political instability and conflict have left the Congolese National Parks neglected. Humans have been able to encroach the habitat to set up illegal mining. Poaching, diseases such as Ebola, and habitat destruction threaten the species. The illegal trade of gorillas and other great apes is a major problem across Central Africa.
Fin Whale - Endangered
The Fin Whale is the second largest mammal in the world, after the Blue Whale. They have a distinct ridge along their back behind the dorsal fin, which gives it the nickname "razorback”. The fin whale, like other baleen whales, strains its food from the water through baleen plates. Hunted by commercial whalers until the last century for oil, meat, and baleen, fin whales in the North Atlantic are listed as endangered. The majority of the whale meat ends up in Japanese markets. Like other majestic whales, fin whales are threatened by environmental change including habitat loss, toxics and climate change. 
Galápagos Penguin - Endangered
This is the only penguin species found north of the equator in the wild. It is the second smallest species of penguin after the little penguin. They search for food only during the day and normally within a few kilometers of their breeding site. The strong sun is a problem for the penguins. Their primary means of cooling off is going into the water. Galápagos penguins protect their eggs and chicks from the hot sun by keeping them in deep crevices in the rocks. This penguin species is threatened by pollution, bycatch and climate change.
Hawaiian Yellow Faced Bees - Endangered
This species is also called "Masked Bees" because of the small yellow diamond shaped markings on their faces. These bees make their nests in twigs and stems, which are then sealed in a cellophane like material. Yellow-faced bees are unusual, the females carry pollen internally, in stomach-like organs, instead of transporting it on their legs or abdomens like most bees. The main threat to the species is habitat loss. Damage to the habitat has occurred through development, introduction of nonnative plants and animals, agriculture, recreational activity, and fire.
Indian Elephant - Endangered
Elephants are classified as megaherbivores and consume up to 150 kg (330 lb) of plant matter per day. In southern India, elephants were recorded to feed on 112 different plant species, most commonly of the order malvales and the legume, palm, sedge and true grass families. Habitat loss forces elephants to seek alternative food sources in the many farms, settlements and plantations that have replaced their ancient forest homes. Elephants are large and destructive animals and small farmers can lose their entire livelihood overnight from an elephant raid. Elephants have also caused millions of dollars of damage to large agricultural operations. As a result of their destructive raids, elephants are often killed in retaliation.
Javan Rhinoceros - Critically Endangered
This species is a dusky grey color and has a single horn of up to about 10 inches. This species of rhinos is on the brink of extinction with only 58-68 individuals that live only in Ujung Kulon National Park in Java, Indonesia. The National Park is highly vulnerable to tsunamis, and a major explosion of the nearby Anak Krakatau volcano could easily wipe out most life in the protected area. Javan rhinos were killed by trophy hunters during colonial times. They were also killed as agricultural pests and for their horn, a highly prized commodity in traditional Asian medicine. Poaching remains an ever-present threat. 
Komodo Dragon - Vulnerable
The Komodo Dragon is a solitary and powerful predator. They can sit for hours hidden in the vegetation and are well camouflaged by their grey-brown skin as they sit waiting for a prey animal to pass by. The Komodo Dragon then ambushes its victim with incredible speed and force. Although the majority of initial attacks are successful, if the animal somehow manages to escape then the bacteria transferred from the Komodo Dragon's mouth in the bite-would, causes the flesh to become septic and kills the prey within 24 hours. This species is threatened by human encroachment on their native habitats and volcanic activity which declines the prey species.
Leatherback Turtle - Vulnerable
This species is the largest of the sea turtles. They have a unique shell consisting of a single piece with 5-8 ridges. This species mainly eats jellyfish, controlling the jellyfish population. But now, they often get mistaken and eat plastic bags that float in the water. Even small quantities of plastic debris can kill sea turtles by obstructing their digestive tracts. This is one of the major threats. Other threats include pollution and fish bycatch.
Malayan Tiger - Critically Endangered
The Malayan tiger is the smallest species of tiger along with the Sumatran tiger, with average female Malayan tigers growing to around 2 meters in length. The smaller size of the Malayan tiger helps it to remain unseen in the clearer parts of the Malaysian jungle. Poachers have infiltrated the forests of Malaysia and plundered its wildlife, including tigers. Malaysian wildlife is in high demand in Asian markets for use as folk medicine and as a sign of wealth. Protecting tiger habitats in Malaysia safeguards other species such as Asian elephants and mainland clouded leopards. 
Numbat - Endangered
Numbats have strong front claws and long tongues which they use to get termites out of their nests. The numbat is an omnivorous animal but it's diet primarily consists of termites and occasionally ants. An adult numbat can eat more than 20,000 termites in just one day. Due to their small size, numbats are prey to a number of larger, predatory animals such as foxes, snakes and feral cats. Being diurnal, the numbat is much more vulnerable to predation than most other marsupials. 
Otter - Endangered
Sea Otters are known to have one of the thickest, warmest coats of fur in the animal kingdom which helps to keep them warm in the cold waters of the North Pacific. The fur is so thick that no water actually touches the skin of the sea otter. They mainly hunts sea urchins, clams, crabs, snails and small fish in the water. The sea otter is one of the few animals in the world that has the remarkable trait of using tools, such as rocks, in order to get at it's prey. They are mainly preyed upon by the great white shark and killer whales. Humans are one of the sea otters main predators as sea otters are hunted mainly for their incredibly dense fur.
Polar Bear - Vulnerable
Polar bears are classified as marine mammals because they spend most of their lives on the sea ice of the Arctic Ocean. They have a thick layer of body fat and a water-repellant coat that insulates them from the cold air and water. Polar bears spend over 50% of their time hunting for food. Their diet mainly consists of ringed and bearded seals because they need large amounts of fat to survive. Polar bears depend on sea ice as a platform from which to hunt seals, rest and breed. Some polar bears may suffer from malnutrition.
Polar bears are directly impacted by climate change, serving as an important indicator species. As the ice melts, they are affected by increased shipping activities and a rise in opportunities for oil and gas development. 
Quetzal - Vulnerable
The Quetzal is an immensely colored animal with metallic green-blue plumage and is widely considered to be one of the most strikingly beautiful birds in the world. They are most well known for the long tail feathers of the males. The Quetzal perches high up in the tree canopy where their calls are nearly as distinctive as their appearance. They have a predominantly fruit-based diet, but when fruits are scarce, they also eat small insects, lizards, frogs, snails and larvae to provide it with the nutrition that its body needs. The Quetzal plays a vital role in maintaining its surrounding environment as the seeds from fruits and berries are spread throughout the forest in their droppings. Today however, their numbers are declining due to both human interference in their natural habitats and the capture of them to be displayed in captivity. 
Red Panda - Endangered
The red panda is slightly larger than a domestic cat with a bear-like body and thick russet fur. They are very skillful and acrobatic animals that predominantly stay in trees. They use their long, bushy tails for balance and to cover themselves in winter, presumably for warmth. Primarily an herbivore, the name panda is said to come from the Nepali word ‘ponya,’ which means bamboo or plant eating animal. Almost 50 percent of the red panda’s habitat is in the Eastern Himalayas. The loss of nesting trees and bamboo is causing a decline in red panda populations across much of their range because their forest home is being cleared. They are also poached for their distinctive pelts in China and Myanmar. Red panda fur caps or hats have been found for sale in Bhutan. 
Saola - Critically Endangered
Saola are recognized by two parallel horns with sharp ends, which can reach 20 inches in length and are found on both males and females. Meaning “spindle horns” in Vietnamese, they are a cousin of cattle but resemble an antelope. Saola have striking white markings on the face and large maxillary glands on the muzzle, which could be used to mark territory or attract mates. The current population is thought to be a few hundred at a maximum and possibly only a few dozen at a minimum. As forests disappear under the chainsaw to make way for agriculture, plantations and infrastructure, saola are being squeezed into smaller spaces. The added pressure from rapid and large-scale infrastructure in the region is also fragmenting saola habitat.
Tarsier - Endangered
The Tarsier is a unique and distinctive looking animal that has evolved a number of specific features to aid its nocturnal and arboreal lifestyle. The most distinctive features of the Tarsier though can be found on their heads which (thanks to specially adapted vertebrae) are able to turn 180 degrees in both directions so that this primate can see behind it without moving its body. Their enormous eyes can be up to 16mm across and enable the Tarsier to hunt for prey and watch out for predators in the dark. Tarsiers also have large bat-like ears which are incredibly sensitive to detect even the slightest sounds close-by. These animals and the remaining pockets of primary forest, remain threatened by loss of habitat throughout much of their natural range.
Urial - Vulnerable
The Punjab urial is an endemic sub species to Pakistan. Its habitat consists of grassy slopes below the timberline. Urials rarely move to the rocky areas of the mountains. They feed mainly on grass but are able to eat leaves of trees and bushes if needed. The main threats to the urial population include habitat degradation (timber, fuel wood) encroachments on protected forest, stealing of lambs, conflicts with the livestock because of competition for grazing. 
Vaquita - Critically Endangered
Vaquita, the world’s most rare marine mammal, is on the edge of extinction. They are often caught and drowned in gillnets used by illegal fishing operations in marine protected areas within Mexico's Gulf of California. The population has dropped drastically in the last few years. The vaquita is the most endangered cetacean in the world. With as few as 30 left, the species will become extinct without a fully enforced gillnet ban throughout their entire range.
Wombat - Critically Endangered
The northern hairy-nosed wombats have bodies covered in soft, grey fur and even have fur on their noses, a trait that sets them apart from the common wombat. They have longer, more pointed ears and a much broader muzzle than the other two species. Their nose is very important in its survival because it has very poor eyesight, so it must detect its food in the dark through smell. They are nocturnal, living underground in networks of burrows. Threats to the wombat include small population size, predation, competition for food, disease, floods, droughts, wildfires, and habitat loss. Its small, highly localized population makes the species especially vulnerable to natural disasters. Wild dogs are the wombat's primary predator.
Xantus Murrulet - Endangered
This is a small seabird found in the California current system in the Pacific Ocean. This species is a small black and white auk with a small head and thin sharp bill. Guadalupe murrelet feeds far out at sea, often in association with large pelagic predatory fish like tuna, and on larval fish. Like all auks it is a wing-propelled diver, chasing down prey under the water with powerful wingbeats. Guadalupe murrelet is mainly threatened by oil spills, as much of its population lives near the busy shipping lanes connecting Los Angeles to other ports. Because a large part of its small population nests in such a small area a single catastrophic oil spill could have far reaching implications.
Yak - Vulnerable
The yak is a herd animal found in the mountainous regions of central Asia. Like other species of cow, the yak is a herbivore and spends a great deal of time on grassy plains in the mountains grazing on grasses, herbs and wild flowers. In a similar way to other cow species, the yak has more than one stomach which the yak uses to successfully get all of the nutrients out of the plants that it eats. The yak has firm, dense horns which the yak uses to break through snow in order to get the plants that are buried beneath it and the yak will also use its horns in defense. They have long shaggy hair that covers their bodies that keep them warm and dry. Although there is a large domestic population of yak, there are only a few wild yak remaining.
Zebra - Endangered
The Grévy’s zebra largely inhibits northern Kenya and some parts of Ethiopia. is the largest living wild equid and the largest and most threatened of the three species of zebra. Compared with other zebras, it is tall, has large ears, and its stripes are narrower. They can survive up to five days without water. Their main predator is the lion, can be hunted by hyenas too. In the past, Grévy's zebras were threatened mainly by hunting for their skins which fetched a high price on the world market. However, hunting has declined and the main threat to the zebra is habitat loss and competition with livestock.
0 - Donate
Probably the easiest thing we can do sitting wherever we are. The people at WWF are passionate and determined to help the planet overcome big problems like climate change. Just one donation to WWF from you could help them conserve forests and species. Visit your country’s WWF page and please donate. 

“Building a future in which humans live in harmony with nature.” - WWF

1 - Plastic
Product packaging and disposable bags are just a waste – what you really want is the thing inside. Less packaging could reduce what you buy – and immediately throw away – by about 10%. This means less waste in landfills, which release large amounts of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming.
Some things you could do : 
a. take your own bag when you go shopping, b. avoid overly packaged products, c. no plastic straws, d. no pet bottles.

2 - Paper
Around the world we use 1 million tonnes of paper every day. Too much of this paper usage is wasteful and unnecessary and puts huge pressures on the environment. Paper usage in many parts of the word is on the rise. Expanding production and pulp wood harvesting threatens some of the last remaining natural forests and the people and wildlife that depend on them. 
Some things you could do : 
a. reuse back of sheets, b. buy recycled paper at workspaces, c. e-bills, d. cancel magazine subscriptions 

3 - Water
One-third of the world‚ population lives in water stressed countries now.
Traditional taps can use up to 10-15 litres of water per minute. In comparison, low flow tap flow rates are as little as 2 litres per minute, up to 70% less than traditional taps. Here are some things you could do : 
a. quick showers, b. no tubs, c. reuse water from dryer machines and cooking, d. turn off taps when brushing, e. fix leaky faucets immediately.

4 - Energy
Artificial lighting accounts for 44% of electricity use in office buildings. Invest in renewable energy! Here are some things you could do : 
a. turn off lights whenever you don’t need it, b. replace lightbulbs, c. use new appliances over old ones as they are more efficient, d. look for the international energy star logo while buying new appliances, e. cold/warm water over hot as it takes more energy to make hot water.

5 - Food 
About 1.3 billion tons of food are wasted each year—four times the amount needed to feed the more than 800+ million people who are malnourished. Our food waste ends up in landfills, emitting large quantities of methane gas into the atmosphere as the food decomposes. Some things you could do :

a. buy only how much you need for a week, b. plan before you go buy, c. cook only how much needed, d. eat your leftovers next day, e. keep track of food in refridgerator, f. reduce waste as much as possible

6 - Pollution
There are many kinds of pollutants. Man made ones being the most dangerous. Acidification of the ocean is the worst type of pollution. Oceans are becoming more acidic rue to green house emissions from fossil fuel. Almost 80% of urban waste in India is dumped in the river Ganges. There are more around 73 various kinds of pesticides in the groundwater, which is used as drinking water.
a. use public transport/carpool, b. scrap old cars, c. buy a bicycle (and mask!), d. don’t burst firecrackers e. recycle everything you can and buy as many recycled things as you can.

7 - Forest
One of the main causes of forest loss is illegal logging, which is fed by high demand for timber in Europe and in countries such as Japan, the United States and China. This wood then ends up in our shops and ultimately our homes. So your garden furniture or wooden flooring may have contributed to the destruction of the world's most valuable rainforests – and the animals and other plants that live there. Loss of forests contributes between 12 percent and 17 percent of annual global greenhouse gas emissions. There are three types of FSC label: 100%, FSC Mix or FSC Recycled. Buying products with any of these would make a difference. I know not all wooden products come with this label, so if there is a choice/option, go for FSC. 

8 - Palm Oil 
It's one of the world's most popular commodities, found in 50% of consumer goods products, including chocolate, lipstick and body lotion. Yet its production often comes at a cost to local communities, forests and the wider environment. 
Look for the RSPO logo on products you buy – choose products containing certified sustainable palm oil where you can. 
RSPO regulations : 
Fair working conditions
Local peoples lands and rights are protected
No clearing of primary forest
Wildlife on plantations is protected
Greenhouse gas emissions reduced
Industrial pollution minimized

9 - Volunteer 
Whenever you get time out from your busy lives, try and contribute. Join WWF in conserving this planet. They have campaigns, research groups, and education groups that raise awareness of the problems. You can be part of any of these and more. Log in to your country’s WWF and get more information. 

I still have not volunteered, but I signed up for the Indian WWF Volunteers, looking forward to contribute in the near future. 

36 Days of Type 2018 - Endangered Species

36 Days of Type 2018 - Endangered Species

This project aims to spread awareness of the different animal species that are at risk of extinction today.