S u r r e a l i s m
An avant-garde movement in Literature and Art which was started after a statement from Andre Breton. It was mentioned in the statement that the main goal of the movement is “to understand the difference between the reality and dream via a new reality”. The word Surrealism was previ- ously used by Guillaume Apollinaire describing works done by some artists, especially Marc Chagall. Even though surrealism was initially meant for Literature but it was in Painting that it’s features blos- somed. These features can easily be seen in the works of artists such as Salvador Dali, Jean Arp, Max Ernst and Joan Miro. New Ideas were published in Surrealist publications such as Surrealist Revolution; the first of its kind, published in Paris in the year 1924. Andre Breton and Louis Aragon were the head of the publication and artists such as Robert Desnos, Giorgio de Chirico, Man Ray, Ernst, Pablo Picasso and Andre Masson worked alongside them. This made Surrealist Revolution, the best of its kind. Later Minotaure (1933-39) became the number one Surrealist magazine. Until the end of the second world war, groups from Belgium, England and the US tried their hands in Surrealist magazines. Surrealism in painting can be divided into two parts: The first part that was described by Dali as “Imagined objects painted by hands”, used traditional styles such as Realism to present a disoriented and disordered world. Imaginary Landscapes filled with different types of objects, insides of different animals made to look like something completely different, monstrous cretures etc. can all be seen in the first part. The basis of the second part is Technical innovations. Lines and colored Shapes are mixed in a way to Evoke a specific mental image. The types of artists who follow this part of Surrealism, sometimes use techniques such as Collage to develop their ideas. Both groups tried to mix the reasonable and the unreason- able. Surrealist poems created by poets such as Sunol Alvar and Rene Crevel and also two important Surrealist movies made by Luis Bunuel and Dali followed the same pattern. 1930s were the peak of this movement. In these years, different Surrealist groups were made in countries like England, The Us, Scandinavian Countries, Japan etc. In the time of war, so many of the Surrealist artists, migrated to the US and this affected the US art and its Artists. Some of the French Artists continued their work in their own country. The first Exhibition to host the Surrealist Artists (1925) and the International Surrealist Exhibition (1965) were both held in Paris. Surrealism highlighted the Passivity of the western man in a social crisis. At the same time, it helped the human understand himself better by understanding his environment. Nowadays, Surrealism is associated with Imaginary images in Art, but we can never call Surrealism an artistic method.