Review by Dr Devicharan Shetty on Rare occurrence of intraosseous schwannoma in a young child
Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated, perineural tumour that arises from the Schwann cells. Around 25% of reported cases have been generating from neck and head region. Intraosseous schwannoma in an 8-year- old male patient characteristically originating from the mental nerve, we reported such as this type of rare cases. The radiographic examination which is followed by histopathological evaluation was confirmed by immunohistochemical markers, GFAP and S-100 that stained intensely positive for the tumour. So after the researchers Dr DeviCharan Shetty confirming the diagnosis of intraosseous schwannoma. The course of evolution determined the general organisation and
distribution of nervous tissue (the third basic tissue) are to a large extent. The cells are called the neurones which specially constitute the functional units of the nervous system, is supported by their connective tissue neuroglia constitute the main bulk of the nervous tissue in the body. Neurones are derived from primitive neuroblasts, in embryogenesis. The cells that do not regenerate in the event of cell death are terminally differentiated. Any disorder to these leads to devastating benign or malignant tumours of the nerves in the oral cavity.
By dividing the tumours into true and false neuromas, Virchow's original categorised emphasised the relationship of the nerve tumours to the neurone proper. False neuromas comprised nerve sheath tumors. The most common and significant group of tumours of peripheral nerves has been accepted as a group and this group is the principal focus. They continue to pose problems in classification and nomenclature and despite the common nature of peripheral tumours. Schwannoma, neurinoma, and
perineural fibroblastoma which is referred by Neurilemmoma is an encapsulated nerve sheath tumor. The benign neoplasm was first described by Verocay in 1910 which is driven by Schwann cells. Verocay called it “Neurinoma” then the term “Neurilemmoma” was coined by Stout. Schwannoma is usually intrabody lesion or a solitary soft tissue which is slow growing, encapsulated and it is mostly associated nerve attached. According to the
Dr. D. C. Shetty, Oral schwannomas are two types of an exhibit in which the common type is the submucosal module which s encapsulated, firm in
consistency and well defined. The nonencapsulated is the second type, below the basal layer of the mucous membrane where the tumour is found. The preoperative diagnosis, is made by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the extent, is often difficult. The nerve of origin is identified after the study of cases which is
described by Yamazaki of schwannoma associated with the mental nerve. Dr Devi Charan Shetty told us that it is possible to diagnose a peripheral nerve sheath tumour, which at least allows the patient to be given appropriate information regarding the risk of nerve lesion during surgery. Schwannoma can have far-reaching immense complications if it involves a nerve or malignant transformation may take place on leaving untreated and it should not be discarded when observing a tumour in the oral cavity. Definitive preoperative diagnosis should be carried out with anatomopathological study and a biopsy.