Road Safety Information
1. Brief statement of the research problem

Within recent times, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of road accidents involving child pedestrians. This research proposal will seek to highlight the strategies that can be developed and implemented to improve the road safety of child pedestrians.

2. Purpose statement and an associated research question

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this paper will seek to address the strategies that can be developed and implemented to enhance road safety for child pedestrians and thus improve casualty reduction.

Research question

What strategies can be implemented to enhance road safety for child pedestrians? 

3. Literature review

Road accidents involving children has become a major cause for concern around the world. Within recent times, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of road accidents involving children. Road safety is therefore of key importance in terms of keeping children safe in traffic. It therefore means that the strategies will have to be implemented to enhance road safety for children.

Eric Dumbaugh and Lawrence Frank (2007) states that “the safety of child pedestrians would appear to be enhanced by strategies that attempt to educate children on how to walk and bike safely, by enforcing traffic laws intended to ensure pedestrian and motorist behaviour, and providing infrastructure aimed at encouraging appropriate interactions between the two user groups”.

Dumbaugh et al (2007) further suggests that in an effort to address the concern of the parents regarding road safety, many persons from all over the world have implemented Safe Routes to School programs for the intention of improving child pedestrian safety.

Dumbaugh et al further state that the implementation of Safe Routes to School Programmes will enhance the road safety of child pedestrians. These strategies are categorised under the following headings namely: Engineering (sidewalks, bicycle lanes, speed reducing, traffic-reducing mechanisms, crosswalks, medians and refuge islands), Enforcement (active police enforcement, school zone flashers, and traffic wardens) and Education (child pedestrian education programs and motor education programs). Such strategies therefore appear to be a promising approach for ensuring child pedestrian safety.

Although sidewalks and bicycle lanes are deemed as safety strategies, the literature is somewhat limited in terms of evaluating their safety effects. The reduction of vehicle speeds improves a motorist’s ability both to react to a child entering the travel way and simultaneously to reduce the amount of time to stop the vehicle. There is evidence to suggest that such strategies are effective in reducing the severity of child pedestrian crashes. It was recommended in the above article that the installation of traffic-controlled crossing locations or the provision of traffic-calming mechanisms to reduce vehicle speeds and volumes to levels that are safe for pedestrians.

A survey of transportation planners and engineers revealed that most communities reduced speed limits near schools during the hours immediately before and immediately after school. Another effective strategy for enhancing child pedestrian safety is the posting of traffic wardens at intersections where children are likely to cross during the journey to school.

Dumbaugh et al concludes these strategies by noting that drivers should be educated on safe operating behaviour when pedestrians are presented or expected, such motorist education programs would appear to be a highly promising approach for enhancing pedestrian safety.

According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2004) it is suggested that the wearing of light-coloured and retro reflective clothing and other aids be used between dusk and dawn in order to increase the visibility of children in traffic. Germany has even implemented a school bag regulation requiring the use of high visibility materials.

In a recent study by Cross and Hall (2005) it was revealed that “roadside training and, to a lesser extent, realistic simulations appear to improve visual timing and gap selection, to increase the ability to identify safe and dangerous crossing locations, and to enhance learning of appropriate strategies for crossing at parked cars. Such training has produced positive results with children as young as 5 years”.

Schieber and Vegega include (2002) suggest that there are numerous engineering strategies to enhance road safety for child pedestrians such as maintenance of sidewalks; use of traffic wardens; erecting warning signs; cautiously positioning bus stops; implementation of speed reducing measures; lengthening the time pedestrians take to cross the street at traffic lights and enhancing the lighting on the streets.

In the next paragraph you should sum up the previous researches on the topic. Do not go in details. Your task is just to point out the main findings and to name the most significant researchers. Opponent

In the last paragraph you should draw a conclusion and point out the direction of the research you are going to conduct.
As your literature review is not a separate piece of writing, but only a part of some academic paper, you should design it in accordance with the writing style you apply to the whole paper. All citations within your literature review also have to be singled out according to the citation style of the paper. This means that your literature review format will coincide with the whole paper’s format.

By the way, in the end of your work (academic paper) you will have to present a list of the bibliographic sources. In this part you will have to list all the sources used (the sources mentioned in your literature review are to be mentioned here also). No matter what writing and citation style you apply to your paper, you will have to arrange the list of references alphabetically.  
References:
2. Keeping children safe in traffic By Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2004)
3. Essay On Road Safety, from http://studymoose.com/road-safety-essay
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