I. Physical limitations of victim and lifesaver
• Efficiency of rescue highly dependent on lifesaver’s physical fitness level.
• The victim is required to use additional effort to hold onto equipment when he/she might already have exhausted all of it from struggling in the water.
• Once the victim feels a strain in energy, he/she may be entirely dependent both physically and mentally on the lifesaver, adding to the burden of the lifesaver.
II. Limitation of inexperienced passerby's
•The only rescue equipment that passersby have access to is the lifebuoy. Inexperienced passersby are likely to encounter difficulty in throwing and aiming at the victim. One also cannot ensure that the victim can grab hold of the lifebuoy and get to safety.
III. Personal safety of lifesaver being compromised
• Under the guide to emergency procedure, the first consideration of water rescue should be the lifesaver’s safety.
• Rescues that can be performed without entering the water are the safest. However in the cases of rescue at open water, lifesavers need to enter the water to attempt an efficient rescue.
• Personal safety of lifesaver is associated with how a victim reacts in terms of emergency. A struggling victim may endanger the safety of the lifesaver during rescue.