In Russia, the shadow of the Communist past hangs heavy over its populace, where Communist leaders imposed strict rules about income, religion, and politics. The early Bolsheviks objected to white cows, thinking the color would remind the peasants of the royalists. In 1919 the Central Committee ordered all white cows dyed red. Those who opposed the Bolshevik regime paid a heavy price. Executions, separations from friends and family, and prison sentences in rough barracks where food and water were scarce, were oftentimes the punishment. Stalin, a bloodthirsty dictator, is the primary trigger for this phobia.