The end of the 1950s and the beginning of 1960s was a time of significant achievements in the sphere of scientific experiments worldwide and in the USSR. During those years, Soviet scientist started bold experiments on animals. A whole series of pioneering experiments was carried out at the University of Moscow and the Academy of Science. And as early as 1950 a Russian scientist Vladimir Demihov surprised the whole world when he transplanted the head of one dog onto another one. The two headed dog lived for a whole month.
At the beginning of the Cold War, all efforts of Soviet science were concentrated on creating a perfect weapon. A secret Soviet project to create a robot-cyborg was started in 1958. The scientific consultant was a Nobel Prize laureate V.Manuilov. As well as designers, medics and engineers also took part in the construction of the robot. Mice, rats and dogs were used in experiments to test if it was safe for humans. The use of monkeys was also considered, but dogs were chosen as they were easier to train and were calmer than monkeys. Consequently this project got the name “The Kollie” and existed for almost 10 years. Under orders from the Central Committee on 4 th January 1969 project “The Kollie" was closed down, and all the information became classified.
In 1991 all information about project “The Kollie” became unclassified.