- Belgrade Bus Rapid Transit
Implementing an alternative rapid system
- Belgrade, Serbia has a population over 1 million people and is one of the last European cities that doesn't have any kind of rapid public transport. Metro was planed from the early '60, but until today, all the projects were stopped, in most cases because of the huge costs that Serbia, developing country, can't afford.What if there is an alternative public transport system that costs up to 4 times less and gives the same results? Here we present our idea of implementing Bus Rapid System in Belgrade, Serbia.
- Belgrade is the capital of Serbia and also the biggest city in the country with almost 1.5 ,million people. Which is 14% of total population in Serbia. Belgrade concentrates the most important political and economic activity in the country. The development of the city was sown down in the ’90. Also the increase of population was slowed down from 1% a year during the ’80 to 0,2% during the ’90. All of this also influenced the number of places to work.
This research has for the goal to define the a coherent network of public transport for the city of Belgrade and thus respond to the current and future needs of movement for the population in Belgrade.
- On the first map we see the displacement of population in Belgrade. It is expected to be 1.5 million of people in Belgrade by 2021. That is the growth of 11.9%in 20 years.
The rate of employment represent the relation between the number of places to work and people, and in Blegrade it is 385 Places on 1000 People. It is expected that the grow form 2001 to 2021 will be 40% making the number of places to work in 2021. 585000. There geographical distribution we can see on this picture.
The atrativity of the central zone always stays much bigger than other zones. This is the consequence of the limited geographical configuration of Belgrade. According to estimates of GUP the mobility in 2001. Is 2,1 movement per day per person, and is expected to grow in 2021. Up to 2,6. Systra approves this estimations but introduces also the term of sector division that is defined by grater mobility in the central area, rich in infrastructure and transport needs and less movement in closer and more distant periphery parts of the town, that have less infrastructure and transport developed.
With all this data and considering other parameters like, width of the streets, important buildings and places in the city, we have constructed 4 lines of BRT that are shown on the map below.
- To show how efficient this network is we used isochrones maps. We made the comparison for the current condition, metro proposal for Belgrade and our BRT proposal.
An isochrone is an isoline for travel time; it is a curve of equal travel time. We made isochrones maps for every type of transportation, drawn the lines, gave them the frequency and the speed they have, in order to see which one has the best results.
The general idea about the BRT in Belgrade is to make an alternative rapid transit to the metro proposal that will have the same efficiency, but will cost much less.
- The public transport in Belgrade is very slow (around 16 km/h in average) and has very low frequency of 15 min in average. Metro is supposed to have the speed of 30 km/h and the average frequency of 9 min. And the last one is our proposal with the average speed of 27 km/h and the average frequency of 5 min. On this maps we see the isochrones made by this data, that show us where can we be in 30 min with every one of the transport systems, starting from the city center, and we can see the obvious differences. The important thing is, that with BRT we reach to the parts that are out of the city lines, that gives the oportunity to develop also this parts, that now have easy access.
- For the project part we choose to design a station on a very busy location, where two lines intersect. In the surroundings there are many cultural point, like museums and parks, shopping center and hotel.
- 1. PARK OF FRIENDSHIP, called also the Peace Park. The First Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non – Aligned Countries was the reason for the construction of the park in 1961. On this green complex, during the history, near two hundred of the most eminent statesmen of the world planted delicate birch, linden, maple or some other tree. Some of them are: Indira Gandhi, Richard Nixon, Olaf Palme, Queen Elizabeth II, Gerald Ford, Leonid Brezhnev llyich, Hua Guo Feng, Margaret Thatcher.. In addition to this greenery a flower sculpture of the sculptor Lidije Misic could be found in the center of Alley. To mark the anniversary of the NATO bombing of Serbia in 2000. the monument "eternal fire" waunveiled. It’s high 78 meters, which symbolizes the number of days of bombing.
2. From time MUSEUM OF ART opened in Belgrade on 20 October 1965th year. The activity of the museum begins 1958th when the act of the Council for Culture People's Committee of the City decided on the establishment of Modern Art, the institution whose task was to monitor the development of Yugoslav contemporary art. His art collection now consists of the most relevant collection of Yugoslav and Serbian art 20th century. Today it has around 7600 and represents the most part a collection of Yugoslav art space in the period of its existence (1900-1991).
3. OLD FAIRGROUND. The complex was built in the thirties of the 20th century across the River Sava in the area that was an unpopulated swamp – Belgrade was situated on the right Sava bank. It was meant to be modern extension of oriental city, which could represent the western tendencies of the young state (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) and its capital. Modern and monumental complex of exhibition and commercial pavilions was built, and started its life with national and international fairs and exhibitions. World War 2 changed its destiny: German occupation forces transformed the complex into the concentration camp, where thousands of people were tortured and killed.
4. THE PALACE OF SERBIA is a government building located in Novi Beograd, Serbia.It was the former seat of the Federal Executive Council (Government) of Yugoslavia and was previously known as the Federation Palace and, informally, SIV Federal Executive Council.Construction began in 1947. The original plans were created by a four-member team of architects, Vladimir Potočnjak, Anton Urlih, Zlatko Nojman and Dragica Perak. Their proposal included only the H shaped base. After the death of team leader Vladimir Potočnjak in 1952, construction was halted, and later resumed in 1956 when architect Mihailo Janković took over the project and significantly improved upon the original design.
5. The competition for the building of the MUSEUM OF REVOLUTION was published in 1961. The idea was to show the development path of struggle of people of Yugoslavia for all-round progress, from first socialist phenomenon on our territory that is around 1970, until the end of 20th century. The museum was imagined not only as a educational and pedagogical institution, but also as a science institution, and also an archive of valuable materials and documents of social development during this period. When architect entered the concourse, the ones that payed more attention to the plastic of the bulding got better results. None of the projects was fully forfiling all the nececery elements, so they announsed two winners.
- The stations are built with prefabricated materials so it can be installed very quickly. Also the positive side of this prefabrication is that we can easily choose what size of the station will be, because it is built from several modules or parts. Our module have dimensions 240 x 215.
- For outdoor look we have chosen recycled plastic but also perforated façade which have not only ecstatic role but also functional. From functional point of view perforation covers one part of the station façade where sanitary facilities are placed. On the other hand in daylight this perforated façade creates interesting shadow inside of the station and during the night lighting in the station are creating shadow through perforation and showing on sidewalk.
- In order to ensure the break resistance of the large glass areas and achieve a good insulation KW 1, 1 with double-glazing, we use a 8 and 10 mm safety glass. The form-stable aluminium frame construction allows frequent transport and is capable of being extended.
Through the application of high value materials for i.e. insulation and interior fittings a very pleasing atmosphere and acoustic are obtained.
- Because of intersection of two bus lines, stations are connected with underground passageway for faster and easier communication. We can get to this lower level of station by elevator, escalator or staircase. This passage has curve sides because we wanted to follow lines of the passage with the lines of stations. There is no many functional activates because this passage is use only for fast communication between the stations.
- To preserve as much green space and trees that are now on the site we have interleave concrete panels with holes in the places where there are trees, so that we can get the impression of the fusion between concrete and green areas. Also we have added benches that follow the line of floor panels where people can use them for socializing and relaxation and not only as a communication between two objects.
- Large round openings that are filled with a green surface are positioned and angled so that people can use them towards the area where they can relax and enjoy the company of friends and surrounding.
- Here we have anticipated some type of outdoor exhibition area. Given the reason that we can’t find this type of open spaces in Belgrade, our aim was to use this unregulated green spaces for this purpose, and also in favor that this area is close to future memorial museum. Of course, this area doesn’t have to be strictly used for the exhibition but also for other content, for example, open space lectures, music concerts for amateur groups, etc. Here we have also randomly passed a surface with openings in order to take advantage of space that includes the trees. In the case of open air exhibitions, concrete benches that are on this open space, can serve people for the smooth and relaxing enjoy of exhibition or the content that take place in this open space.
- Belgrade Bus Rapid System is project made by students Branko Jovovic and Dusana Petrovic from the University Politecnico di Milano for their final thesis project on the Master studies.